The Golden Age of Spanish literature from the mystics and Don Quixote to Quevedo and Gracian offers a wealth of material for philosophical reflexion. Calderon is the most significant author in this respect with regard to drama. Calderon's basis is the reflected world of experience and the symbol. Starting from baroque play between dream and reality and the battle of the opposites, which as ideal powers of the world of his contemporaries brought forth division and tension, Calderon carries out, by means of luxuriant stage metaphorics and refined rhetorics, a methodical, dramatized study of what the real in whose direction we should orient ourselves actually is. The study by Rivera de Rosales first deals with Calderon's way of understanding the onological reality of the world which leads us to disappointment. It then treats the various conflicts which bring the central assertion of liberty and its works into grave difficulties. Finally, it discusses the powerful thesis of theism, which caused so much theological, philosophical and political polemics in these centuries and thus had a decisive effect on modern consciousness because of the difficulty of harmonizing it with human liberty.